Selected Readings and Resources on Multicultural Issues and Students who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

This list provides articles and books on multicultural issues related to students who are deaf or hard of hearing. This list is organized into five categories: Multicultural, African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander. Also provided is a list of national organizations serving or advocating for the needs of people who are deaf in these ethnic origins.



Andrews, F. Jean. (2003). Benefits of an Ed.D. Program in Deaf Education: A Survey. American Annals of the Deaf, 148.3, 259-266.

Banks, J.A. (2001) Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum, and teaching. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Banks, J.A. & Banks, C.A.M. (eds.). (2001). Handbook of research on multicultural education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Battles, D.E. (Ed.). (1998). Communication disorders in multicultural populations. (2nd Ed.). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Christensen, K.M., & Delgado, G.L. (Eds.). (2000). Deaf plus: a multicultural perspective. San Diego: Dawn Sign Press.

Christensen, K.M., & Delgado, G.L. (1993). Multicultural Issues in deafness. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Cohen, O.P. (1991). Deaf children from ethnic, linguistic and racial minority background: An overview. American Annals of the Deaf, 135 (2), 67-93.

Cohen, O.P. (1992, Spring). Underserved minorities in deaf schools. Preview, p. 14.

Cohen, O.P. (April, 1997). Giving all children a chance: Advantages of an antiracist approach for deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf 142(2), 80-83.

Kluwin, T.N. (Dec. 1994). The interaction of race, gender, and social class effects in the education of deaf students. American Annals of the Deaf 139(5), 465-471.

Lummer, L. & Plue, C. (2000). Multicultural deaf consumers' perspectives of interpreter services panel session. Interpreter Workshop Series. Aurora, IL: Waubonsee Community College.

Marschark, M. & Spencer, P.E. (Eds). (2003). Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language and education. New York: Oxford University Press. (4th floor, HV2380 .088 2003).

Screen, R.M. (1994). Multicultural perspectives in communication disorders. San Diego: Singular Pub. Group.

Webster, O. Yehudi. (1997). Against the Multicultural Agenda. A critical thinking alternative. Greenwood Publishing Group.

African American

Anderson, G.B., & Grace, C. A. (1991). Black deaf adolescents: A diverse and underserved population. Volta Review 93(5), 73-86.

Corbett, C. (1999). Mental health issues for African American People. In I. Leigh (Ed.). Psychotherapy with deaf clients of diverse groups. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Davila, R.R. (1992). The black deaf experience: Empowerment and excellence. Viewpoints on Deafness: A Deaf American Monograph 42, 49-51.

Dunn, L.M (1992). Intellectual oppression of the black deaf child. Viewpoints on Deafness: A Deaf American Monograph 42, 53-58.

Herring-Wright, M. (1999). Sounds like Home: Growing up Black and Deaf in the south. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Krentz, C. (1996). Historical parallels between the African American and Deaf American. Deaf American Monographs, (46) 69-74.

Miller-Hall, M. (1994). Deaf, dumb, and Black: an account of the life of a family. New York: Carlton Press Corp.

Mosely-Hall, C.J. (March 1998). The association between racelessness and achievements among African American deaf adolescents. American Annals of the Deaf,143 (1), 55-64.

Reagan, T. (1990). Cultural considerations in the education of deaf children. In D.F. Moore & K.P. Meadow-Orlans (Eds.) Educational and developmental aspects of deafness. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Asian and Pacific Islander

Goldin-Meadow, S. & Saltzman, J. (July, 2000). The cultural bounds of maternal accommodation: How Chinese and American mothers communicate with deaf and hearing children. Psychology Science 11(4), 307-314.

Jones, L. Atkin, K., Ahman, W.I. (Jan 2001). Supporting Asian deaf young people and their families. The role of professional and service. Disability and Society, 16(1), 51-70.

Mejia-Giudici, C.C. Part of the community: A profile of Deaf Filipino American in Seattle. In Root, M. (Ed.). (1997). Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. (pp143-162).

Wu. C. & Grant, N. (April 1997). Asian, American and deaf: A framework for professionals. American Annals of the Deaf (142), 2, 85-89.

Wu, C. L. & Grant, N. (1999). Asian American and Deaf. In I. Leigh (Ed.). Psychotherapy with deaf clients of diverse groups. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.


Andrews, J.F. (1991). Hasta luego, San Diego. Washington, DC.: Gallaudet University Press.

Apodaca, M.D. (1997). Who speaks for Hispanic deaf American? Deaf American Monographs, 47(1-2).

Hernandez, M. (1999). The role of therapeutic groups in working with Latino deaf adolescents. In I. Leigh (Ed.). Psychotherapy with deaf clients of diverse groups. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Mapp, I. & Hudson, R. (1997). Stress and coping among African American and Hispanic parents of deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 142(1), 46-54.

Rodriguez, O. & Santiviago, M. (1991). Hispanic deaf adolescents: A multicultural minority. Volta Review, 93(5), 89-97.

Sonnenstrahl, D. (1997). Deaf heritage presentation: All about deaf Spanish artist Francisco. Deaf Nation, (2), 5, 9.

Native American

Battisti-Cole, T. (1998). Silent One: The Adventure of a Hearing Impaired Heroine. Champaign, Illinois: Lonely Blue Coyote, Inc.

Davis, J. & Supalla, S. (1995). A sociolinguistic Description of sign language use in a Navajo Family. In the Ceil, L. (Ed.) Sociolinguistics in Deaf Communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.  

Eldridge, N. M. (1999). Culturally responsive psychotherapy with American Indians who are deaf. In I. Leigh (Ed.), Psychotherapy with deaf clients from diverse groups (177-201). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Eldridge, N.M. (1993). Culturally affirmative counseling with American Indians who are deaf. Journals of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association, 26(4), 1-14.

Eldridge, N. & Carrigan, J. (1992). Where do my kindred dwell? Using art and storytelling to understand the transition of young Indian men who are deaf. Arts in Psychotherapy, 19(1), 29-38.

Hamond, S. A. & Meiners, L.H. (1993). American Indian Deaf children and youth. In Christensen, K. M. & Delgado, G.L (Eds). Multicultural Issues in Deafness. Longman Publishing Group. 143-166.

Hassell, J. (1993, January). Portrait of a Deaf Rights Advocate. The NAD Broadcaster.

Updated 2008. Reviewed 10/14 to remove references from prior to 1990.  

National Organizations

National Alliance of Black Interpreters, Inc. (NAOBI)

The mission of NAOBI is to promote excellence and empowerment of African Americans/Blacks in the profession of sign language interpreting in the context of a multi-cultural, multi-lingual environment. NAOBI is the only national organization that supports sign language interpreters from the African diaspora, and whose goal is to increase the talent pool of skilled African American/ Black Interpreters nationwide.   

National Asian Deaf Congress (NADC)   

NADC is a non-profit organization whose mission is to define and address the cultural, political and social issues experienced by Asians who are deaf or hard of hearing. NADC is strengthened by the diversity of its members and organizations that represent various geographic regions, languages, religions, cultures, and generations. NADC will also strive to provide education, empowerment, and leadership for its respective members and organizations.

National Black Deaf Advocates Inc. (NBDA)   

NBDA promotes leadership, deaf awareness, and active participation in the political, educational, and economic processes that affect the lives of black deaf citizens. Programs include the Youth Employment Summit (YES) for deaf youth. This is a growing organization with more than 30 chapters in the United States and the Virgin Islands.

National Council of Hispano Deaf and Hard of Hearing (NCHDHH) (look for them on Facebook)

The mission of the National Council of Hispano Deaf and Hard of Hearing is to ensure equal access of the Hispano deaf and hard of hearing community in the areas of social, recreational, cultural, educational, and vocational welfare. To this end, the NCHDHH will maintain a national awareness and advocacy program to educate the deaf and hard of hearing communities as well as social and educational programs and organizations about the needs and issues facing deaf Hispano persons.

Sacred Circle (Formerly Intertribal, Deaf Council, Inc.)

Sacred Circle is a non-profit organization for deaf, deaf-blind, and hard of hearing and late-deafened American Indian, Alaska Native, and First Nations individuals and their families. Non-natives who are hearing or deaf, or hearing Natives are also welcome to participate as associate members.  


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